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The Sears Catalogue originated in what city?

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Sears House Designs of the Thirties


Proudly promoting itself as "the largest home building organization in the world," Sears, Roebuck and Company advertised in 1932 products in a handsome catalog that also displayed a full-size replica of Mount Vernon, created from Sears materials for a Paris exposition in 1932. At the heart of this now-rare publication were measured floor plans for 68 Sears homes. Over 200 illustration displayed interiors and exteriors for such handsome residences.

                                   
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LATEST COLLECTIBLES ARTICLE__________________________

The Magic of Light
by Bob Brooke

 


Back in the 17th century, entertainment was limited to live musical and theatrical performances. But the invention of a magical device that projected images on a white wall or muslin screen changed all that and entertain would never be the same. That invention was the “magic lantern.”



Though several types of projecting systems had existed before the invention of the magic lantern, none worked well enough to really catch the public’s eye.

The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name laterna magica, coined by Thomas Rasmussen Walgensten, a 17th-century mathematician from Gotland, Sweden, was an early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, and later photographs—on transparent glass plates, one or more lenses, and a light source.

The name “magic lantern” comes from the experience of the early audiences who saw devils and angels mysteriously appear on the wall, as if by magic. Even in the earliest period, performances contained images that moved—created with moving pieces of glass.

The Invention of the Magic Lantern
Most historians credit Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens as the inventor of the magic lantern. He knew of Athanasius Kircher's 1645 edition of Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae which described a primitive projection system with a focusing lens and text or pictures painted on a concave mirror reflecting sunlight. Christiaan's father Constantijn had been acquainted with Cornelis Drebbel who used some unidentified optical techniques to transform himself and to summon wonderful appearances in magical performances.

But like other scientists of his day, Huygens thought it was too frivolous. In a 1662, he wrote his brother Lodewijk, claiming that his invention would harm the family's reputation if people found out the lantern came from him. Christiaan initially referred to the magic lantern as "la lampe" and "la lanterne", but later referred to it as the "laterna magica.”

In 1664 Parisian engineer Pierre Petit wrote to Huygens to ask for some specifications of his lantern, because he was trying to construct one with a concave mirror behind the lamp. This directed more light through the lens, resulting in a brighter projection, and it would become a standard part of most of the lanterns that were made later. Petit boasted that he made a lamp stronger than any he had ever seen.

From then on, magic lanterns used a concave mirror behind a light source to direct the light through a small rectangular sheet of glass—a "lantern slide" that bore the image—and onward into a lens at the front of the apparatus. The lens adjusted to focus the plane of the slide at the distance of the projection screen, which could be simply a white wall, and it therefore formed an enlarged image of the slide on the screen. Some lanterns, including the one invented by Huygens used three lenses.

Magic Lantern Slides
Ernst Wilhelm and Friedrich Langenheim, German-born brothers in Philadelphia, invented the first photographic lantern slides, called hyalotypes, and patented them in 1850.

Originally hand painted on glass slides, these “sliders,” as they called them, featured figures rendered with black paint. Soon the brothers also used transparent colors. Sometimes they did the painting on oiled paper, using black paint as a background to block superfluous light, so the figures could be projected without distracting borders or frames. They finished many of their slides with a layer of transparent lacquer, but later used cover glasses to protect the painted layer. The brothers mounted most of the handmade slides in wood frames with a round or square opening for the picture.



Light Sources
Apart from sunlight, the only light sources available at the time of the magic lantern’s invention in the 17th century were candles and oil lamps, which weren’t very inefficient and produced very dim projected images. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s helped to make the images brighter. But the invention of limelight, created by heating a piece of limestone in burning gas until it became incandescent, in the 1820s made them even brighter, producing a light strong enough to project an image before thousands of people, leading to large shows by professional showmen. But it was dangerous. The invention of the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s eliminated the need for combustible gases or hazardous chemicals, and eventually the incandescent electric lamp further improved safety and convenience, although not brightness.

Entertainment Led to Education
Users of early magic lanterns intended on scaring their audiences. Pierre Petit called it "lanterne de peur," the lantern of fear in 1664. Surviving lantern plates and descriptions from the next several decades prove that the new medium wasn’t just used for horror shows, but that people used them to project many kinds of subjects.

In 1675, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz saw an important role for the magic lantern in his plan for a kind of world exhibition with projections of "attempts at flight, artistic meteors, optical effects, representations of the sky with the star and comets, and a model of the earth, fireworks, water fountains, and ships in rare forms; then mandrakes and other rare plants and exotic animals."

Johannes Zahn, an early advocate for use of the magic lantern for education, saw the potential for projecting detailed anatomical illustrations which were difficult to draw on a chalkboard, but could easily be copied onto glass or mica.

By the 1730s the use of magic lanterns started to become more widespread when traveling showmen, conjurers and storytellers added them to their repertoire. The traveling lanternists, known as Savoyards because they supposedly came from the Savoy region in France, became a common sight in many European cities.



The earliest known “lantern show” in the U. S. occurred in Salem, Massachusetts, on December 3, 1743, “for the Entertainment of the Curious.” But the source of light for lanterns in this period—usually oil lamps—was still weak, and as a consequence the audiences were small.

Magic lanterns had also become a staple of science lecturing and museum events since Scottish lecturer Henry Moyes’s tour of America between 1785 and 1786, when he recommended that all college laboratories procure one. French writer and educator Stéphanie Félicité, popularized the use of magic lanterns as an educational tool in the late 1700s when using projected images of plants to teach botany. Her educational methods were published in America in English translation during the early 1820s.

Phantasmagoria
Phantasmagoria was a form of horror theater that used one or more magic lanterns to project frightening images, especially of ghosts. Showmen used rear projection, mobile or portable projectors and a variety of effects to produce convincing necromantic experiences. It was very popular in Europe from the late 18th century to well into the 19th century. Etienne-Gaspard Robert became famous for his Fantasmagorie show in Paris from 1798 to 1803



Mass Slide Production
In 1821, Philip Carpenter's London company, which became Carpenter and Westley after his death, started manufacturing a sturdy but lightweight and transportable "Phantasmagoria lantern" with an Argand style lamp. It produced high quality projections and was suitable for classrooms. Carpenter also developed a "secret" copper plate printing/burning process to mass-produce glass lantern slides with printed outlines, which were then easily and quickly hand painted ready for sale. Known as "copper-plate sliders," they contained three or four very detailed 4-inch circular images mounted in thin hardwood frames. The first known set, “The Elements of Zoology,” with over 200 images in 56 frames of zoological figures, classified according to the system of the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus, became available in 1823. The same year many other slides appeared in the company's catalog, including "The Kings and Queens of England," "Astronomical Diagrams and Constellations," "Views and Buildings," and “Ancient and Modern Costume.” Even though the category of "Humorous" provided some entertainment, the focus on education was obvious.

The mass production of slides also made the magic lantern affordable to the public, opening a market for smaller lanterns with smaller glass sliders, which instead of wooden frames usually had colorful strips of paper glued around their edges.

Waning Popularity
The popularity of magic lanterns waned after the introduction of movies in the 1890s, but they remained a common medium until slide projectors became widespread during the 1950s.

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